The image shows sympathetic neurons (immunostained for tyrosine hydroxylase, red) extending axonal bundles along an artery (PECAM staining, blue), with sympathetic fibers surrounding and innervating arterial smooth muscle cells (smooth muscle actin staining, green). On page 3230, Brunet et al. uncover a critical role for the axon guidance cue netrin-1 in sympathetic arterial innervation and blood flow.
J. Larry Jameson
Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used for the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections. Traditionally, it has been used as a drug of last resort; however, clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant
Susana Gardete, Alexander Tomasz
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the host’s internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in host defense, mucosal injury, mucosal wound healing, and tumorigenesis. The emerging picture indicates that intestinal epithelial cells represent an integral component of a highly regulated communications network that can transmit essential signals to cells in the underlying intestinal mucosa, and that intestinal epithelial cells, in turn, serve as targets of mucosal mediators. These signals are essential for maintaining intestinal mucosal defense and homeostasis.
Martin F. Kagnoff
A growing body of evidence indicates that the kidneys contribute substantially to immune defense against pathogens in the urinary tract. In this issue, Paragas et al. report that α–intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the nephron collecting duct sense infecting Gram-negative bacteria, resulting in simultaneously secretion of the iron chelating protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2) and protons, which acidify the urine. A-IC–specific LCN2 and proton secretion markedly reduced the ability of infecting uropathogenic
Yuxuan Miao, Soman N. Abraham
The regenerative capacity of tissues to recover from injury or stress is dependent on stem cell competence, yet the underlying mechanisms that govern how stem cells detect stress and initiate appropriate responses are poorly understood. In this issue of the
Brian S. Garrison, Derrick J. Rossi
A common form of the hyperkinetic movement disorder dystonia is caused by mutations in the gene
Åsa Petersén, Deniz Kirik
Cardiac fibroblasts have been long recognized as active participants in heart disease; however, their exact physiological and pathological roles remain elusive, mainly due to the lack of specific markers. In this issue of the
Metabolic status has long been thought to determine reproductive status, with abnormal metabolic phenotypes altering reproductive cascades, such as the onset of puberty. In this issue of the
Stephanie B. Seminara
Autonomic sympathetic axons extend along and innervate resistance arteries to control vascular tone and participate in blood pressure regulation. In this issue of the
Cell replacement for restoring neuronal populations in Parkinson’s disease has been demonstrated as a potential therapeutic strategy over several decades of studies; however, a number of issues regarding sources of replacement neurons and optimization of therapeutic efficacy in vivo have hampered clinical implementation. In this issue of the
Elena M. Vazey, Gary Aston-Jones
Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression.
Roberto Ferrarese, Griffith R. Harsh IV, Ajay K. Yadav, Eva Bug, Daniel Maticzka, Wilfried Reichardt, Stephen M. Dombrowski, Tyler E. Miller, Anie P. Masilamani, Fangping Dai, Hyunsoo Kim, Michael Hadler, Denise M. Scholtens, Irene L.Y. Yu, Jürgen Beck, Vinodh Srinivasasainagendra, Fabrizio Costa, Nicoleta Baxan, Dietmar Pfeifer, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Rolf Backofen, Astrid Weyerbrock, Christine W. Duarte, Xiaolin He, Marco Prinz, James P. Chandler, Hannes Vogel, Arnab Chakravarti, Jeremy N. Rich, Maria S. Carro, Markus Bredel
About half of all melanomas harbor a mutation that results in a constitutively active BRAF kinase mutant (BRAFV600E/K) that can be selectively inhibited by targeted BRAF inhibitors (BRAFis). While patients treated with BRAFis initially exhibit measurable clinical improvement, the majority of patients eventually develop drug resistance and relapse. Here, we observed marked elevation of
Jamie N. Anastas, Rima M. Kulikauskas, Tigist Tamir, Helen Rizos, Georgina V. Long, Erika M. von Euw, Pei-Tzu Yang, Hsiao-Wang Chen, Lauren Haydu, Rachel A. Toroni, Olivia M. Lucero, Andy J. Chien, Randall T. Moon
Tumors from patients with high-grade aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) exhibit increased expression of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamine neurotransmitters and dietary amines. Despite the association between MAOA and aggressive PCa, it is unclear how MAOA promotes PCa progression. Here, we found that MAOA functions to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stabilize the transcription factor HIF1α, which mediates hypoxia through an elevation of ROS, thus enhancing growth, invasiveness, and metastasis of PCa cells. Knockdown and overexpression of MAOA in human PCa cell lines indicated that MAOA induces EMT through activation of VEGF and its coreceptor neuropilin-1. MAOA-dependent activation of neuropilin-1 promoted AKT/FOXO1/TWIST1 signaling, allowing FOXO1 binding at the
Jason Boyang Wu, Chen Shao, Xiangyan Li, Qinlong Li, Peizhen Hu, Changhong Shi, Yang Li, Yi-Ting Chen, Fei Yin, Chun-Peng Liao, Bangyan L. Stiles, Haiyen E. Zhau, Jean C. Shih, Leland W.K. Chung
A precise equilibrium between cellular differentiation and proliferation is fundamental for tissue homeostasis. Maintaining this balance is particularly important for the liver, a highly differentiated organ with systemic metabolic functions that is endowed with unparalleled regenerative potential. Carcinogenesis in the liver develops as the result of hepatocellular de-differentiation and uncontrolled proliferation. Here, we identified
María Elizalde, Raquel Urtasun, María Azkona, María U. Latasa, Saioa Goñi, Oihane García-Irigoyen, Iker Uriarte, Victor Segura, María Collantes, Mariana Di Scala, Amaia Lujambio, Jesús Prieto, Matías A. Ávila, Carmen Berasain
Activation and accumulation of cardiac fibroblasts, which result in excessive extracellular matrix deposition and consequent mechanical stiffness, myocyte uncoupling, and ischemia, are key contributors to heart failure progression. Recently, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and the recruitment of circulating hematopoietic progenitors to the heart have been reported to generate substantial numbers of cardiac fibroblasts in response to pressure overload–induced injury; therefore, these processes are widely considered to be promising therapeutic targets. Here, using multiple independent murine Cre lines and a collagen1a1-
Thomas Moore-Morris, Nuno Guimarães-Camboa, Indroneal Banerjee, Alexander C. Zambon, Tatiana Kisseleva, Aurélie Velayoudon, William B. Stallcup, Yusu Gu, Nancy D. Dalton, Marta Cedenilla, Rafael Gomez-Amaro, Bin Zhou, David A. Brenner, Kirk L. Peterson, Ju Chen, Sylvia M. Evans
Acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes thrombotic cardiovascular events, leading to increased mortality rates; however, the link between PM and cardiovascular dysfunction is not completely understood. We have previously shown that the release of IL-6 from alveolar macrophages is required for a prothrombotic state and acceleration of thrombosis following exposure to PM. Here, we determined that PM exposure results in the systemic release of catecholamines, which engage the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) on murine alveolar macrophages and augment the release of IL-6. In mice, β2AR signaling promoted the development of a prothrombotic state that was sufficient to accelerate arterial thrombosis. In primary human alveolar macrophages, administration of a β2AR agonist augmented IL-6 release, while the addition of a beta blocker inhibited PM-induced IL-6 release. Genetic loss or pharmacologic inhibition of the β2AR on murine alveolar macrophages attenuated PM-induced IL-6 release and prothrombotic state. Furthermore, exogenous β2AR agonist therapy further augmented these responses in alveolar macrophages through generation of mitochondrial ROS and subsequent increase of adenylyl cyclase activity. Together, these results link the activation of the sympathetic nervous system by β2AR signaling with metabolism, lung inflammation, and an enhanced susceptibility to thrombotic cardiovascular events.
Sergio E. Chiarella, Saul Soberanes, Daniela Urich, Luisa Morales-Nebreda, Recep Nigdelioglu, David Green, James B. Young, Angel Gonzalez, Carmen Rosario, Alexander V. Misharin, Andrew J. Ghio, Richard G. Wunderink, Helen K. Donnelly, Kathryn A. Radigan, Harris Perlman, Navdeep S. Chandel, G.R. Scott Budinger, Gökhan M. Mutlu
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a severe form of congenital diarrhea that arises from inactivating mutations in the gene encoding myosin Vb (MYO5B). We have examined the association of mutations in
Byron C. Knowles, Joseph T. Roland, Moorthy Krishnan, Matthew J. Tyska, Lynne A. Lapierre, Paul S. Dickman, James R. Goldenring, Mitchell D. Shub
α–Intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the collecting duct of the kidney are critical for acid-base homeostasis. Here, we have shown that A-ICs also serve as both sentinels and effectors in the defense against urinary infections. In a murine urinary tract infection model, A-ICs bound uropathogenic
Neal Paragas, Ritwij Kulkarni, Max Werth, Kai M. Schmidt-Ott, Catherine Forster, Rong Deng, Qingyin Zhang, Eugenia Singer, Alexander D. Klose, Tian Huai Shen, Kevin P. Francis, Sunetra Ray, Soundarapandian Vijayakumar, Samuel Seward, Mary E. Bovino, Katherine Xu, Yared Takabe, Fábio E. Amaral, Sumit Mohan, Rebecca Wax, Kaitlyn Corbin, Simone Sanna-Cherchi, Kiyoshi Mori, Lynne Johnson, Thomas Nickolas, Vivette D’Agati, Chyuan-Sheng Lin, Andong Qiu, Qais Al-Awqati, Adam J. Ratner, Jonathan Barasch
Intracellular therapeutic targets that define tumor immunosuppression in both tumor cells and T cells remain intractable. Here, we have shown that administration of a covalently linked siRNA to an aptamer (apt) that selectively binds cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA4apt) allows gene silencing in exhausted CD8+ T cells and Tregs in tumors as well as CTLA4-expressing malignant T cells. CTLA4 expression was upregulated in CD8+ T cells in the tumor milieu; therefore, CTLA4apt fused to a STAT3-targeting siRNA (CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA) resulted in internalization into tumor-associated CD8+ T cells and silencing of STAT3, which activated tumor antigen–specific T cells in murine models. Both local and systemic administration of CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA dramatically reduced tumor-associated Tregs. Furthermore, CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA potently inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in various mouse tumor models. Importantly, CTLA4 expression is observed in T cells of patients with blood malignancies, and CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA treatment of immunodeficient mice bearing human T cell lymphomas promoted tumor cell apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition. These data demonstrate that a CTLA4apt-based siRNA delivery strategy allows gene silencing in both tumor-associated T cells and tumor cells and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis.
Andreas Herrmann, Saul J. Priceman, Maciej Kujawski, Hong Xin, Gregory A. Cherryholmes, Wang Zhang, Chunyan Zhang, Christoph Lahtz, Claudia Kowolik, Steve J. Forman, Marcin Kortylewski, Hua Yu
Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass.
Pablo Roman-Garcia, Isabel Quiros-Gonzalez, Lynda Mottram, Liesbet Lieben, Kunal Sharan, Arporn Wangwiwatsin, Jose Tubio, Kirsty Lewis, Debbie Wilkinson, Balaji Santhanam, Nazan Sarper, Simon Clare, George S. Vassiliou, Vidya R. Velagapudi, Gordon Dougan, Vijay K. Yadav
The majority of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harbor EGFR-activating mutations that can be therapeutically targeted by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), such as erlotinib and gefitinib. Unfortunately, a subset of patients with EGFR mutations are refractory to EGFR-TKIs. Resistance to EGFR inhibitors reportedly involves SRC activation and induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we have demonstrated that overexpression of CRIPTO1, an EGF-CFC protein family member, renders EGFR-TKI–sensitive and EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells resistant to erlotinib in culture and in murine xenograft models. Furthermore, tumors from NSCLC patients with EGFR-activating mutations that were intrinsically resistant to EGFR-TKIs expressed higher levels of CRIPTO1 compared with tumors from patients that were sensitive to EGFR-TKIs. Primary NSCLC cells derived from a patient with EGFR-mutated NSCLC that was intrinsically erlotinib resistant were CRIPTO1 positive, but gained erlotinib sensitivity upon loss of CRIPTO1 expression during culture. CRIPTO1 activated SRC and ZEB1 to promote EMT via microRNA-205 (miR-205) downregulation. While miR-205 depletion induced erlotinib resistance, miR-205 overexpression inhibited CRIPTO1-dependent ZEB1 and SRC activation, restoring erlotinib sensitivity. CRIPTO1-induced erlotinib resistance was directly mediated through SRC but not ZEB1; therefore, cotargeting EGFR and SRC synergistically attenuated growth of erlotinib-resistant, CRIPTO1-positive, EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this combination may overcome intrinsic EGFR-inhibitor resistance in patients with CRIPTO1-positive, EGFR-mutated NSCLC.
Kang-Seo Park, Mark Raffeld, Yong Wha Moon, Liqiang Xi, Caterina Bianco, Trung Pham, Liam C. Lee, Tetsuya Mitsudomi, Yasushi Yatabe, Isamu Okamoto, Deepa Subramaniam, Tony Mok, Rafael Rosell, Ji Luo, David S. Salomon, Yisong Wang, Giuseppe Giaccone
Neuroblastoma prognosis is dependent on both the differentiation state and stromal content of the tumor. Neuroblastoma tumor stroma is thought to suppress neuroblast growth via release of soluble differentiating factors. Here, we identified critical growth-limiting components of the differentiating stroma secretome and designed a potential therapeutic strategy based on their central mechanism of action. We demonstrated that expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), including TβRIII, GPC1, GPC3, SDC3, and SDC4, is low in neuroblasts and high in the Schwannian stroma. Evaluation of neuroblastoma patient microarray data revealed an association between
Erik H. Knelson, Angela L. Gaviglio, Jasmine C. Nee, Mark D. Starr, Andrew B. Nixon, Stephen G. Marcus, Gerard C. Blobe
Subpopulations of dopaminergic (DA) neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) display a differential vulnerability to loss in Parkinson’s disease (PD); however, it is not clear why these subsets are preferentially selected in PD-associated neurodegeneration. In rodent SNpc, DA neurons can be divided into two subpopulations based on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1). Here, we have shown that, in α-synuclein transgenic mice, a murine model of PD-related disease, DA neurodegeneration occurs mainly in a dorsomedial ALDH1A1-negative subpopulation that is also prone to cytotoxic aggregation of α-synuclein. Notably, the topographic ALDH1A1 pattern observed in α-synuclein transgenic mice was conserved in human SNpc. Postmortem evaluation of brains of patients with PD revealed a severe reduction of ALDH1A1 expression and neurodegeneration in the ventral ALDH1A1-positive DA subpopulations. ALDH1A1 expression was also suppressed in α-synuclein transgenic mice. Deletion of
Guoxiang Liu, Jia Yu, Jinhui Ding, Chengsong Xie, Lixin Sun, Iakov Rudenko, Wang Zheng, Namratha Sastry, Jing Luo, Gay Rudow, Juan C. Troncoso, Huaibin Cai
The pathogenesis of mucoinfective lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients likely involves poor mucus clearance. A recent model of mucus clearance predicts that mucus flow depends on the relative mucin concentration of the mucus layer compared with that of the periciliary layer; however, mucin concentrations have been difficult to measure in CF secretions. Here, we have shown that the concentration of mucin in CF sputum is low when measured by immunologically based techniques, and mass spectrometric analyses of CF mucins revealed mucin cleavage at antibody recognition sites. Using physical size exclusion chromatography/differential refractometry (SEC/dRI) techniques, we determined that mucin concentrations in CF secretions were higher than those in normal secretions. Measurements of partial osmotic pressures revealed that the partial osmotic pressure of CF sputum and the retained mucus in excised CF lungs were substantially greater than the partial osmotic pressure of normal secretions. Our data reveal that mucin concentration cannot be accurately measured immunologically in proteolytically active CF secretions; mucins are hyperconcentrated in CF secretions; and CF secretion osmotic pressures predict mucus layer–dependent osmotic compression of the periciliary liquid layer in CF lungs. Consequently, mucin hypersecretion likely produces mucus stasis, which contributes to key infectious and inflammatory components of CF lung disease.
Ashley G. Henderson, Camille Ehre, Brian Button, Lubna H. Abdullah, Li-Heng Cai, Margaret W. Leigh, Genevieve C. DeMaria, Hiro Matsui, Scott H. Donaldson, C. William Davis, John K. Sheehan, Richard C. Boucher, Mehmet Kesimer
Ewing’s sarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumor found in children and adolescents, and the origin of this malignancy is not well understood. Here, we introduced a Ewing’s sarcoma–associated genetic fusion of the genes encoding the RNA-binding protein EWS and the transcription factor ETS (
Miwa Tanaka, Yukari Yamazaki, Yohei Kanno, Katsuhide Igarashi, Ken-ichi Aisaki, Jun Kanno, Takuro Nakamura
The neuropeptide kisspeptin regulates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via the kisspeptin receptor KISS1R. In addition to GnRH neurons, KISS1R is expressed in other brain areas and peripheral tissues, which suggests that kisspeptin has additional functions beyond reproduction. Here, we studied the energetic and metabolic phenotype in mice lacking kisspeptin signaling (
Kristen P. Tolson, Christian Garcia, Stephanie Yen, Stephanie Simonds, Aneta Stefanidis, Alison Lawrence, Jeremy T. Smith, Alexander S. Kauffman
Lack of a preclinical model of primary dystonia that exhibits dystonic-like twisting movements has stymied identification of the cellular and molecular underpinnings of the disease. The classical familial form of primary dystonia is caused by the DYT1 (ΔE) mutation in
Chun-Chi Liang, Lauren M. Tanabe, Stephanie Jou, Frank Chi, William T. Dauer
Dysregulation of epigenetic controls is associated with tumorigenesis in response to microenvironmental stimuli; however, the regulatory pathways involved in epigenetic dysfunction are largely unclear. We have determined that a critical epigenetic regulator, microRNA-205 (miR-205), is repressed by the ligand jagged1, which is secreted from the tumor stroma to promote a cancer-associated stem cell phenotype. Knockdown of miR-205 in mammary epithelial cells promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), disrupted epithelial cell polarity, and enhanced symmetric division to expand the stem cell population. Furthermore, miR-205–deficient mice spontaneously developed mammary lesions, while activation of miR-205 markedly diminished breast cancer stemness. These data provide evidence that links tumor microenvironment and microRNA-dependent regulation to disruption of epithelial polarity and aberrant mammary stem cell division, which in turn leads to an expansion of stem cell population and tumorigenesis. This study elucidates an important role for miR-205 in the regulation of mammary stem cell fate, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for limiting breast cancer genesis.
Chi-Hong Chao, Chao-Ching Chang, Meng-Ju Wu, How-Wen Ko, Da Wang, Mien-Chie Hung, Jer-Yen Yang, Chun-Ju Chang
Parkinsonism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are widespread brain disorders that involve disturbances of dopaminergic signaling. The sodium-coupled dopamine transporter (DAT) controls dopamine homeostasis, but its contribution to disease remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed a cohort of patients with atypical movement disorder and identified 2 DAT coding variants, DAT-Ile312Phe and a presumed de novo mutant DAT-Asp421Asn, in an adult male with early-onset parkinsonism and ADHD. According to DAT single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) scans and a fluoro-deoxy-glucose-PET/MRI (FDG-PET/MRI) scan, the patient suffered from progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In heterologous cells, both DAT variants exhibited markedly reduced dopamine uptake capacity but preserved membrane targeting, consistent with impaired catalytic activity. Computational simulations and uptake experiments suggested that the disrupted function of the DAT-Asp421Asn mutant is the result of compromised sodium binding, in agreement with Asp421 coordinating sodium at the second sodium site. For DAT-Asp421Asn, substrate efflux experiments revealed a constitutive, anomalous efflux of dopamine, and electrophysiological analyses identified a large cation leak that might further perturb dopaminergic neurotransmission. Our results link specific DAT missense mutations to neurodegenerative early-onset parkinsonism. Moreover, the neuropsychiatric comorbidity provides additional support for the idea that DAT missense mutations are an ADHD risk factor and suggests that complex DAT genotype and phenotype correlations contribute to different dopaminergic pathologies.
Freja H. Hansen, Tina Skjørringe, Saiqa Yasmeen, Natascha V. Arends, Michelle A. Sahai, Kevin Erreger, Thorvald F. Andreassen, Marion Holy, Peter J. Hamilton, Viruna Neergheen, Merete Karlsborg, Amy H. Newman, Simon Pope, Simon J.R. Heales, Lars Friberg, Ian Law, Lars H. Pinborg, Harald H. Sitte, Claus Loland, Lei Shi, Harel Weinstein, Aurelio Galli, Lena E. Hjermind, Lisbeth B. Møller, Ulrik Gether
Mitchell E. Horwitz, Nelson J. Chao, David A. Rizzieri, Gwynn D. Long, Keith M. Sullivan, Cristina Gasparetto, John P. Chute, Ashley Morris, Carolyn McDonald, Barbara Waters-Pick, Patrick Stiff, Steven Wease, Amnon Peled, David Snyder, Einat Galamidi Cohen, Hadas Shoham, Efrat Landau, Etty Friend, Iddo Peleg, Dorit Aschengrau, Dima Yackoubov, Joanne Kurtzberg, Tony Peled
The magnitude, quality, and maintenance of immunological memory after infection or vaccination must be considered for future design of effective influenza vaccines. In 2009, the influenza pandemic produced disease that ranged from mild to severe, even fatal, illness in infected healthy adults and led to vaccination of a portion of the population with the adjuvanted, inactivated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Here, we have proposed a multiparameter quantitative and qualitative approach to comparing adaptive immune memory to influenza 1 year after mild or severe infection or vaccination. One year after antigen encounter, severely ill subjects maintained high levels of humoral and polyfunctional effector/memory CD4+ T cells responses, while mildly ill and vaccinated subjects retained strong cellular immunity, as indicated by high levels of mucosal homing and degranulation markers on IFN-γ+ antigen-specific T cells. A principal component analysis distinguished 3 distinct clusters of individuals. The first group comprised vaccinated and mildly ill subjects, while clusters 2 and 3 included mainly infected individuals. Each cluster had immune memory profiles that differed in magnitude and quality. These data provide evidence that there are substantial similarities between the antiinfluenza response that mildly ill and vaccinated individuals develop and that this immune memory signature is different from that seen in severely ill individuals.
Olivia Bonduelle, Fabrice Carrat, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Catherine Leport, Anne Mosnier, Nora Benhabiles, Anne Krivine, Flore Rozenberg, Nora Yahia, Assia Samri, Dominique Rousset, Sylvie van der Werf, Brigitte Autran, Behazine Combadiere
Numerous human disorders, including Cockayne syndrome, UV-sensitive syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, and trichothiodystrophy, result from the mutation of genes encoding molecules important for nucleotide excision repair. Here, we describe a syndrome in which the cardinal clinical features include short stature, hearing loss, premature aging, telangiectasia, neurodegeneration, and photosensitivity, resulting from a homozygous missense (p.Ser228Ile) sequence alteration of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). PCNA is a highly conserved sliding clamp protein essential for DNA replication and repair. Due to this fundamental role, mutations in PCNA that profoundly impair protein function would be incompatible with life. Interestingly, while the p.Ser228Ile alteration appeared to have no effect on protein levels or DNA replication, patient cells exhibited marked abnormalities in response to UV irradiation, displaying substantial reductions in both UV survival and RNA synthesis recovery. The p.Ser228Ile change also profoundly altered PCNA’s interaction with Flap endonuclease 1 and DNA Ligase 1, DNA metabolism enzymes. Together, our findings detail a mutation of PCNA in humans associated with a neurodegenerative phenotype, displaying clinical and molecular features common to other DNA repair disorders, which we showed to be attributable to a hypomorphic amino acid alteration.
Emma L. Baple, Helen Chambers, Harold E. Cross, Heather Fawcett, Yuka Nakazawa, Barry A. Chioza, Gaurav V. Harlalka, Sahar Mansour, Ajith Sreekantan-Nair, Michael A. Patton, Martina Muggenthaler, Phillip Rich, Karin Wagner, Roselyn Coblentz, Constance K. Stein, James I. Last, A. Malcolm R. Taylor, Andrew P. Jackson, Tomoo Ogi, Alan R. Lehmann, Catherine M. Green, Andrew H. Crosby
Enoch Muyanja, Aloysius Ssemaganda, Pearline Ngauv, Rafael Cubas, Helene Perrin, Divya Srinivasan, Glenda Canderan, Benton Lawson, Jakub Kopycinski, Amanda S. Graham, Dawne K. Rowe, Michaela J. Smith, Sharon Isern, Scott Michael, Guido Silvestri, Thomas H. Vanderford, Erika Castro, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Joel Singer, Jill Gillmour, Noah Kiwanuka, Annet Nanvubya, Claudia Schmidt, Josephine Birungi, Josephine Cox, Elias K. Haddad, Pontiano Kaleebu, Patricia Fast, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Lydie Trautmann
Purinergic receptors of the P2Y family are G protein–coupled surface receptors that respond to extracellular nucleotides and can mediate responses to local cell damage. P2Y-dependent signaling contributes to thrombotic and/or inflammatory consequences of tissue injury by altering platelet and endothelial activation and immune cell phagocytosis. Here, we have demonstrated that P2Y14 modifies cell senescence and cell death in response to tissue stress, thereby enabling preservation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell function. In mice, P2Y14 deficiency had no demonstrable effect under homeostatic conditions; however, radiation stress, aging, sequential exposure to chemotherapy, and serial bone marrow transplantation increased senescence in animals lacking P2Y14. Enhanced senescence coincided with increased ROS, elevated p16INK4a expression, and hypophosphorylated Rb and was inhibited by treatment with a ROS scavenger or inhibition of p38/MAPK and JNK. Treatment of WT cells with pertussis toxin recapitulated the P2Y14 phenotype, suggesting that P2Y14 mediates antisenescence effects through Gi/o protein–dependent pathways. Primitive hematopoietic cells lacking P2Y14 were compromised in their ability to restore hematopoiesis in irradiated mice. Together, these data indicate that P2Y14 on stem/progenitor cells of the hematopoietic system inhibits cell senescence by monitoring and responding to the extracellular manifestations of tissue stress and suggest that P2Y14-mediated responses prevent the premature decline of regenerative capacity after injury.
Joonseok Cho, Rushdia Yusuf, Sungho Kook, Eyal Attar, Dongjun Lee, Baehang Park, Tao Cheng, David T. Scadden, Byeong Chel Lee
Activation of MET by HGF plays a key role in tumor progression. Using a recently developed llama platform that generates human-like immunoglobulins, we selected 68 different antibodies that compete with HGF for binding to MET. HGF-competing antibodies recognized 4 distinct hotspots localized in different MET domains. We identified 1 hotspot that coincides with the known HGF β chain binding site on blades 2–3 of the SEMA domain β-propeller. We determined that a second and a third hotspot lie within blade 5 of the SEMA domain and IPT domains 2–3, both of which are thought to bind to HGF α chain. Characterization of the fourth hotspot revealed a region across the PSI-IPT 1 domains not previously associated with HGF binding. Individual or combined targeting of these hotspots effectively interrupted HGF/MET signaling in multiple cell-based biochemical and biological assays. Selected antibodies directed against SEMA blades 2–3 and the PSI-IPT 1 region inhibited brain invasion and prolonged survival in a glioblastoma multiforme model, prevented metastatic disease following neoadjuvant therapy in a triple-negative mammary carcinoma model, and suppressed cancer cell dissemination to the liver in a
Cristina Basilico, Anna Hultberg, Christophe Blanchetot, Natalie de Jonge, Els Festjens, Valérie Hanssens, Sjudry-Ilona Osepa, Gitte De Boeck, Alessia Mira, Manuela Cazzanti, Virginia Morello, Torsten Dreier, Michael Saunders, Hans de Haard, Paolo Michieli
In atherosclerosis, plaques preferentially develop in arterial regions of disturbed blood flow (d-flow), which alters endothelial gene expression and function. Here, we determined that d-flow regulates genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in a DNA methyltransferase–dependent (DNMT-dependent) manner. Induction of d-flow by partial carotid ligation surgery in a murine model induced DNMT1 in arterial endothelium. In cultured endothelial cells, DNMT1 was enhanced by oscillatory shear stress (OS), and reduction of DNMT with either the inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5Aza) or siRNA markedly reduced OS-induced endothelial inflammation. Moreover, administration of 5Aza reduced lesion formation in 2 mouse models of atherosclerosis. Using both reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and microarray, we determined that d-flow in the carotid artery resulted in hypermethylation within the promoters of 11 mechanosensitive genes and that 5Aza treatment restored normal methylation patterns. Of the identified genes,
Jessilyn Dunn, Haiwei Qiu, Soyeon Kim, Daudi Jjingo, Ryan Hoffman, Chan Woo Kim, Inhwan Jang, Dong Ju Son, Daniel Kim, Chenyi Pan, Yuhong Fan, I. King Jordan, Hanjoong Jo
NOTCH-dependent signaling pathways are critical for normal bone remodeling; however, it is unclear if dysfunctional NOTCH activation contributes to inflammation-mediated bone loss, as observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. We performed RNA sequencing and pathway analyses in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from transgenic
Hengwei Zhang, Matthew J. Hilton, Jennifer H. Anolik, Stephen L. Welle, Chen Zhao, Zhenqiang Yao, Xing Li, Zhiyu Wang, Brendan F. Boyce, Lianping Xing
Direct lineage reprogramming through genetic-based strategies enables the conversion of differentiated somatic cells into functional neurons and distinct neuronal subtypes. Induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons can be generated by direct conversion of skin fibroblasts; however, their in vivo phenotypic and functional properties remain incompletely understood, leaving their impact on Parkinson’s disease (PD) cell therapy and modeling uncertain. Here, we determined that iDA neurons retain a transgene-independent stable phenotype in culture and in animal models. Furthermore, transplanted iDA neurons functionally integrated into host neuronal tissue, exhibiting electrically excitable membranes, synaptic currents, dopamine release, and substantial reduction of motor symptoms in a PD animal model. Neuronal cell replacement approaches will benefit from a system that allows the activity of transplanted neurons to be controlled remotely and enables modulation depending on the physiological needs of the recipient; therefore, we adapted a DREADD (
Maria Teresa Dell’Anno, Massimiliano Caiazzo, Damiana Leo, Elena Dvoretskova, Lucian Medrihan, Gaia Colasante, Serena Giannelli, Ilda Theka, Giovanni Russo, Liudmila Mus, Gianni Pezzoli, Raul R. Gainetdinov, Fabio Benfenati, Stefano Taverna, Alexander Dityatev, Vania Broccoli
Autonomic sympathetic nerves innervate peripheral resistance arteries, thereby regulating vascular tone and controlling blood supply to organs. Despite the fundamental importance of blood flow control, how sympathetic arterial innervation develops remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the axon guidance cue netrin-1 as an essential factor required for development of arterial innervation in mice. Netrin-1 was produced by arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the onset of innervation, and arterial innervation required the interaction of netrin-1 with its receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), on sympathetic growth cones. Function-blocking approaches, including cell type–specific deletion of the genes encoding
Isabelle Brunet, Emma Gordon, Jinah Han, Brunella Cristofaro, Dong Broqueres-You, Chun Liu, Karine Bouvrée, Jiasheng Zhang, Raquel del Toro, Thomas Mathivet, Bruno Larrivée, Julia Jagu, Laurence Pibouin-Fragner, Luc Pardanaud, Maria J.C. Machado, Timothy E. Kennedy, Zhen Zhuang, Michael Simons, Bernard I. Levy, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Almut Grenz, Holger Eltzschig, Anne Eichmann
Injury to the biliary epithelium triggers inflammation and fibrosis, which can result in severe liver diseases and may progress to malignancy. Development of a type 1 immune response has been linked to biliary injury pathogenesis; however, a subset of patients with biliary atresia, the most common childhood cholangiopathy, exhibit increased levels of Th2-promoting cytokines. The relationship among different inflammatory drivers, epithelial repair, and carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we determined that the Th2-activating cytokine IL-33 is elevated in biliary atresia patient serum and in the livers and bile ducts of mice with experimental biliary atresia. Administration of IL-33 to WT mice markedly increased cholangiocyte proliferation and promoted sustained cell growth, resulting in dramatic and rapid enlargement of extrahepatic bile ducts. The IL-33–dependent proliferative response was mediated by an increase in the number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which released high levels of IL-13 that in turn promoted cholangiocyte hyperplasia. Induction of the IL-33/ILC2/IL-13 circuit in a murine biliary injury model promoted epithelial repair; however, induction of this circuit in mice with constitutive activation of AKT and YAP in bile ducts induced cholangiocarcinoma with liver metastases. These findings reveal that IL-33 mediates epithelial proliferation and suggest that activation of IL-33/ILC2/IL-13 may improve biliary repair and disruption of the circuit may block progression of carcinogenesis.
Jun Li, Nataliya Razumilava, Gregory J. Gores, Stephanie Walters, Tatsuki Mizuochi, Reena Mourya, Kazuhiko Bessho, Yui-Hsi Wang, Shannon S. Glaser, Pranavkumar Shivakumar, Jorge A. Bezerra
Recently, several neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies have been isolated from memory B cells of HIV-infected individuals. Despite extensive evidence of B cell dysfunction in HIV disease, little is known about the cells from which these rare HIV-specific antibodies originate. Accordingly, we used HIV envelope gp140 and CD4 or coreceptor (CoR) binding site (bs) mutant probes to evaluate HIV-specific responses in peripheral blood B cells of HIV-infected individuals at various stages of infection. In contrast to non-HIV responses, HIV-specific responses against gp140 were enriched within abnormal B cells, namely activated and exhausted memory subsets, which are largely absent in the blood of uninfected individuals. Responses against the CoRbs, which is a poorly neutralizing epitope, arose early, whereas those against the well-characterized neutralizing epitope CD4bs were delayed and infrequent. Enrichment of the HIV-specific response within resting memory B cells, the predominant subset in uninfected individuals, did occur in certain infected individuals who maintained low levels of plasma viremia and immune activation with or without antiretroviral therapy. The distribution of HIV-specific responses among memory B cell subsets was corroborated by transcriptional analyses. Taken together, our findings provide valuable insight into virus-specific B cell responses in HIV infection and demonstrate that memory B cell abnormalities may contribute to the ineffectiveness of the antibody response in infected individuals.
Lela Kardava, Susan Moir, Naisha Shah, Wei Wang, Richard Wilson, Clarisa M. Buckner, Brian H. Santich, Leo J.Y. Kim, Emily E. Spurlin, Amy K. Nelson, Adam K. Wheatley, Christopher J. Harvey, Adrian B. McDermott, Kai W. Wucherpfennig, Tae-Wook Chun, John S. Tsang, Yuxing Li, Anthony S. Fauci
The number of newly formed neurons declines rapidly during aging, and this decrease in neurogenesis is associated with decreased function of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we determined that a WIP1-dependent pathway regulates NPC differentiation and contributes to the age-associated decline of neurogenesis. Specifically, we found that WIP1 is expressed in NPCs of the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) and aged animals with genetically enhanced WIP1 expression exhibited higher NPC numbers and neuronal differentiation compared with aged WT animals. Additionally, augmenting WIP1 expression in aged animals markedly improved neuron formation and rescued a functional defect in fine odor discrimination in aged mice. We identified the WNT signaling pathway inhibitor DKK3 as a key downstream target of WIP1 and found that expression of DKK3 in the SVZ is restricted to NPCs. Using murine reporter strains, we determined that DKK3 inhibits neuroblast formation by suppressing WNT signaling and
Yunhua Zhu, Oleg N. Demidov, Amanda M. Goh, David M. Virshup, David P. Lane, Dmitry V. Bulavin
Yujin Zhang, Vladimir Berka, Anren Song, Kaiqi Sun, Wei Wang, Weiru Zhang, Chen Ning, Chonghua Li, Qibo Zhang, Mikhail Bogdanov, Danny C. Alexander, Michael V. Milburn, Mostafa H. Ahmed, Han Lin, Modupe Idowu, Jun Zhang, Gregory J. Kato, Osheiza Y. Abdulmalik, Wenzheng Zhang, William Dowhan, Rodney E. Kellems, Pumin Zhang, Jianping Jin, Martin Safo, Ah-Lim Tsai, Harinder S. Juneja, Yang Xia