Certain matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family proteins have been associated with cell proliferation and invasion in aggressive cancers. However, attempts to target the MMPs with the hope of treating tumors have thus far failed. In this issue of the JCI, Ragusa and coworkers identified an intestinal cancer subgroup of slow-growing, chemotherapy-resistant, and very aggressive matrix-rich tumors that mimic a hard-to-treat colorectal cancer subtype in humans. These tumors showed downregulated levels of the transcription factor prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1), which relieved repression of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP14. Upregulated MMP14 levels correlated with blood vessel dysfunction and a lack of cytotoxic T cells. Notably, blockade of proangiogenic factors in combination with stimulation of the CD40 pathway in the mouse cancer model boosted cytotoxic T cell infiltration. The study illustrates how combinatorial treatments for aggressive, T cell–deficient cancers can launch an antitumor immune response.
Epigenetic integrity is critical for many eukaryotic cellular processes. An important question is how different epigenetic regulators control development and influence disease. Lysine acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8) is critical for acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16), an evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mark. It is unclear what roles KAT8 plays in cerebral development and human disease. Here, we report that cerebrum-specific knockout mice displayed cerebral hypoplasia in the neocortex and hippocampus, along with improper neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) development. Mutant cerebrocortical neuroepithelia exhibited faulty proliferation, aberrant neurogenesis, massive apoptosis, and scant H4K16 propionylation. Mutant NSPCs formed poor neurospheres, and pharmacological KAT8 inhibition abolished neurosphere formation. Moreover, we describe KAT8 variants in 9 patients with intellectual disability, seizures, autism, dysmorphisms, and other anomalies. The variants altered chromobarrel and catalytic domains of KAT8, thereby impairing nucleosomal H4K16 acetylation. Valproate was effective for treating epilepsy in at least 2 of the individuals. This study uncovers a critical role of KAT8 in cerebral and NSPC development, identifies 9 individuals with KAT8 variants, and links deficient H4K16 acylation directly to intellectual disability, epilepsy, and other developmental anomalies.
Lin Li, Mohammad Ghorbani, Monika Weisz-Hubshman, Justine Rousseau, Isabelle Thiffault, Rhonda E. Schnur, Catherine Breen, Renske Oegema, Marjan M.M. Weiss, Quinten Waisfisz, Sara Welner, Helen Kingston, Jordan A. Hills, Elles M.J. Boon, Lina Basel-Salmon, Osnat Konen, Hadassa Goldberg-Stern, Lily Bazak, Shay Tzur, Jianliang Jin, Xiuli Bi, Michael Bruccoleri, Kirsty McWalter, Megan T. Cho, Maria Scarano, G. Bradley Schaefer, Susan S. Brooks, Susan Starling Hughes, K.L.I. van Gassen, Johanna M. van Hagen, Tej K. Pandita, Pankaj B. Agrawal, Philippe M. Campeau, Xiang-Jiao Yang
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MEK inhibitors (EGFRi/MEKi) are beneficial for the treatment of solid cancers but are frequently associated with severe therapy-limiting acneiform skin toxicities. The underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Using gene expression profiling we identified IL-36γ and IL-8 as candidate drivers of EGFRi/MEKi skin toxicity. We provide molecular and translational evidence that EGFRi/MEKi in concert with the skin commensal bacterium Cutibacterium acnes act synergistically to induce IL-36γ in keratinocytes and subsequently IL-8, leading to cutaneous neutrophilia. IL-36γ expression was the combined result of C. acnes–induced NF-κB activation and EGFRi/MEKi–mediated expression of the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), due to the presence of both NF-κB and KLF4 binding sites in the human IL-36γ gene promoter. EGFRi/MEKi increased KLF4 expression by blockade of the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway. These results provide an insight into understanding the pathological mechanism of the acneiform skin toxicities induced by EGFRi/MEKi and identify IL-36γ and the transcription factor KLF4 as potential therapeutic targets.
Takashi K. Satoh, Mark Mellett, Barbara Meier-Schiesser, Gabriele Fenini, Atsushi Otsuka, Hans-Dietmar Beer, Tamara Rordorf, Julia-Tatjana Maul, Jürg Hafner, Alexander A. Navarini, Emmanuel Contassot, Lars E. French
High levels of ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) have been implicated in immune suppression and tumor progression, and have also been observed in cancer patients who progress on anti–PD-1 immunotherapy. Although regulatory T cells can express CD73 and inhibit T cell responses via the production of adenosine, less is known about CD73 expression in other immune cell populations. We found that tumor-infiltrating NK cells upregulate CD73 expression and the frequency of these CD73-positive NK cells correlated with larger tumor size in breast cancer patients. In addition, the expression of multiple alternative immune checkpoint receptors including LAG-3, VISTA, PD-1, and PD-L1 was significantly higher in CD73-positive NK cells than in CD73-negative NK cells. Mechanistically, NK cells transport CD73 in intracellular vesicles to the cell surface and the extracellular space via actin polymerization–dependent exocytosis upon engagement of 4-1BBL on tumor cells. These CD73-positive NK cells undergo transcriptional reprogramming and upregulate IL-10 production via STAT3 transcriptional activity, suppressing CD4-positive T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production. Taken together, our results support the notion that tumors can hijack NK cells as a means to escape immunity and that CD73 expression defines an inducible population of NK cells with immunoregulatory properties within the tumor microenvironment.
Shi Yong Neo, Ying Yang, Julien Record, Ran Ma, Xinsong Chen, Ziqing Chen, Nicholas P. Tobin, Emily Blake, Christina Seitz, Ron Thomas, Arnika Kathleen Wagner, John Andersson, Jana de Boniface, Jonas Bergh, Shannon Murray, Evren Alici, Richard Childs, Martin Johansson, Lisa S. Westerberg, Felix Haglund, Johan Hartman, Andreas Lundqvist
Therapy with antineoplastic agents that inhibit EGFR and MEK is frequently limited by cutaneous adverse reactions, most commonly acne-like eruptions. In this issue of the JCI, Satoh et al. define a mechanism for acneiform skin toxicity wherein EGFR/MEK inhibitors cooperate with the skin commensal Cutibacterium acnes to induce IL-36γ in keratinocytes via the combined actions of Krüppel-like factor 4 and NF-κB transcription factors at the IL-36γ promoter, resulting in neutrophil recruitment. In addition to elucidating why EGFR/MEK inhibitor–induced rashes are often pustular and folliculocentric, this mechanism provides justification for the long-standing practice of management with antibiotic therapy.
Allison C. Billi, Mrinal K. Sarkar, Johann E. Gudjonsson
The prion agent is unique in biology and is comprised of prion protein scrapie (PrPSc), a self-templating conformational variant of the host encoded prion protein cellular (PrPC). The deposition patterns of PrPSc in the CNS can vary considerably from a diffuse synaptic pattern to large plaque-like aggregates. Alterations of PrPC posttranslational processing can change PrPSc deposition patterns; however, the mechanism underlying these observations is unclear. In this issue of the JCI, Sevillano and authors determined that parenchymal PrPSc plaques of the mouse brain preferentially incorporated underglycosylated PrPC that had been liberated from the cell surface by the metalloproteinase, ADAM-10, in combination with heparan sulfate. These results provide mechanistic insight into the formation of PrPSc plaques and suggest that PrP posttranslational modifications direct pathogenicity as well as the rate of disease progression.
Jason C. Bartz
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) are common among proteins that aggregate in neurodegenerative disease, yet how PTMs impact the aggregate conformation and disease progression remains unclear. By engineering knockin mice expressing prion protein (PrP) lacking 2 N-linked glycans (Prnp180Q/196Q), we provide evidence that glycans reduce spongiform degeneration and hinder plaque formation in prion disease. Prnp180Q/196Q mice challenged with 2 subfibrillar, non–plaque-forming prion strains instead developed plaques highly enriched in ADAM10-cleaved PrP and heparan sulfate (HS). Intriguingly, a third strain composed of intact, glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored) PrP was relatively unchanged, forming diffuse, HS-deficient deposits in both the Prnp180Q/196Q and WT mice, underscoring the pivotal role of the GPI-anchor in driving the aggregate conformation and disease phenotype. Finally, knockin mice expressing triglycosylated PrP (Prnp187N) challenged with a plaque-forming prion strain showed a phenotype reversal, with a striking disease acceleration and switch from plaques to predominantly diffuse, subfibrillar deposits. Our findings suggest that the dominance of subfibrillar aggregates in prion disease is due to the replication of GPI-anchored prions, with fibrillar plaques forming from poorly glycosylated, GPI-anchorless prions that interact with extracellular HS. These studies provide insight into how PTMs impact PrP interactions with polyanionic cofactors, and highlight PTMs as a major force driving the prion disease phenotype.
Alejandro M. Sevillano, Patricia Aguilar-Calvo, Timothy D. Kurt, Jessica A. Lawrence, Katrin Soldau, Thu H. Nam, Taylor Schumann, Donald P. Pizzo, Sofie Nyström, Biswa Choudhury, Hermann Altmeppen, Jeffrey D. Esko, Markus Glatzel, K. Peter R. Nilsson, Christina J. Sigurdson
Influenza A virus (IAV) is among the most common causes of pneumonia-related death worldwide. Pulmonary epithelial cells are the primary target for viral infection and replication and respond by releasing inflammatory mediators that recruit immune cells to mount the host response. Severe lung injury and death during IAV infection result from an exuberant host inflammatory response. The linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC), composed of SHARPIN, HOIL-1L, and HOIP, is a critical regulator of NF-κB–dependent inflammation. Using mice with lung epithelial–specific deletions of HOIL-1L or HOIP in a model of IAV infection, we provided evidence that, while a reduction in the inflammatory response was beneficial, ablation of the LUBAC-dependent lung epithelial–driven response worsened lung injury and increased mortality. Moreover, we described a mechanism for the upregulation of HOIL-1L in infected and noninfected cells triggered by the activation of type I IFN receptor and mediated by IRF1, which was maladaptive and contributed to hyperinflammation. Thus, we propose that lung epithelial LUBAC acts as a molecular rheostat that could be selectively targeted to modulate the immune response in patients with severe IAV-induced pneumonia.
Patricia L. Brazee, Luisa Morales-Nebreda, Natalia D. Magnani, Joe G.N. Garcia, Alexander V. Misharin, Karen M. Ridge, G.R. Scott Budinger, Kazuhiro Iwai, Laura A. Dada, Jacob I. Sznajder
The human lipidome comprises over tens of thousands of distinct lipid species in addition to total cholesterol and the other conventional lipid traits that are routinely measurable in the peripheral circulation. Of the lipid species considered to exhibit bioactive functions, sphingolipids are a class of molecules that have shown relevance to human disease risk and cardiovascular outcomes in particular. In this issue of the JCI, Poss et al. conducted targeted lipidomics in a case-control study involving over 600 individuals and found a sphingolipid profile that predicted coronary artery disease status. In the context of emerging evidence linking sphingolipid biology with cardiovascular pathophysiology, these results suggest the potential utility of serum sphingolipids as cholesterol-independent markers of risk and even future targets for optimizing cardiovascular health.
Justin B. Echouffo-Tcheugui, Mohit Jain, Susan Cheng
Cortical hyperexcitability and mislocalization of the RNA-binding protein TDP43 are highly conserved features in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nevertheless, the relationship between these phenomena remains poorly defined. Here, we showed that hyperexcitability recapitulates TDP43 pathology by upregulating shortened TDP43 (sTDP43) splice isoforms. These truncated isoforms accumulated in the cytoplasm and formed insoluble inclusions that sequestered full-length TDP43 via preserved N-terminal interactions. Consistent with these findings, sTDP43 overexpression was toxic to mammalian neurons, suggesting neurodegeneration arising from complementary gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms. In humans and mice, sTDP43 transcripts were enriched in vulnerable motor neurons, and we observed a striking accumulation of sTDP43 within neurons and glia of ALS patients. Collectively, these studies uncover a pathogenic role for alternative TDP43 isoforms in ALS, and implicate sTDP43 as a key contributor to the susceptibility of motor neurons in this disorder.
Kaitlin Weskamp, Elizabeth M. Tank, Roberto Miguez, Jonathon P. McBride, Nicolás B. Gómez, Matthew White, Ziqiang Lin, Carmen Moreno Gonzalez, Andrea Serio, Jemeen Sreedharan, Sami J. Barmada
Thorsten M. Leucker, Steven P. Schulman, Gary Gerstenblith
Immune response to therapeutic enzymes poses a detriment to patient safety and treatment outcome. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is a standard therapeutic option for some types of mucopolysaccharidoses, including Morquio A syndrome caused by N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) deficiency. Current protocols tolerize patients using cytotoxic immunosuppressives, which can cause adverse effects. Here we show development of tolerance in Morquio A mice via oral delivery of peptide or GALNS for 10 days prior to ERT. Our results show that using an immunodominant peptide (I10) or the complete GALNS enzyme to orally induce tolerance to GALNS prior to ERT resulted in several improvements to ERT in mice: (a) decreased splenocyte proliferation after in vitro GALNS stimulation, (b) modulation of the cytokine secretion profile, (c) decrease in GALNS-specific IgG or IgE in plasma, (d) decreased GAG storage in liver, and (e) fewer circulating immune complexes in plasma. This model could be extrapolated to other lysosomal storage disorders in which immune response hinders ERT.
Angela C. Sosa, Barbara Kariuki, Qi Gan, Alan P. Knutsen, Clifford J. Bellone, Miguel A. Guzmán, Luis A. Barrera, Shunji Tomatsu, Anil K. Chauhan, Eric Armbrecht, Adriana M. Montaño
Hematological malignancies have long been at the forefront of the development of novel immune-based treatment strategies. The earliest successful efforts originated from the extensive body of work in the field of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These efforts laid the foundation for the recent exciting era of cancer immunotherapy, which includes immune checkpoint blockade, personal neoantigen vaccines, and adoptive T cell transfer. At the heart of the specificity of these novel strategies is the recognition of target antigens presented by malignant cells to T cells. Here, we review the advances in systematic identification of minor histocompatibility antigens and neoantigens arising from personal somatic alterations or recurrent driver mutations. These exciting efforts pave the path for the implementation of personalized combinatorial cancer therapy.
Livius Penter, Catherine J. Wu
A single subanesthetic dose of ketamine, an NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, produces rapid and sustained antidepressant actions in depressed patients, addressing a major unmet need for the treatment of mood disorders. Ketamine produces a rapid increase in extracellular glutamate and synaptic formation in the prefrontal cortex, but the initial cellular trigger that initiates this increase and ketamine’s behavioral actions has not been identified. To address this question, we used a combination of viral shRNA and conditional mutation to produce cell-specific knockdown or deletion of a key NMDAR subunit, GluN2B, implicated in the actions of ketamine. The results demonstrated that the antidepressant actions of ketamine were blocked by GluN2B-NMDAR knockdown on GABA (Gad1) interneurons, as well as subtypes expressing somatostatin (Sst) or parvalbumin (Pvalb), but not glutamate principle neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Further analysis of GABA subtypes showed that cell-specific knockdown or deletion of GluN2B in Sst interneurons blocked or occluded the antidepressant actions of ketamine and revealed sex-specific differences that are associated with excitatory postsynaptic currents on mPFC principle neurons. These findings demonstrate that GluN2B-NMDARs on GABA interneurons are the initial cellular trigger for the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine and show sex-specific adaptive mechanisms to GluN2B modulation.
Danielle M. Gerhard, Santosh Pothula, Rong-Jian Liu, Min Wu, Xiao-Yuan Li, Matthew J. Girgenti, Seth R. Taylor, Catharine H. Duman, Eric Delpire, Marina Picciotto, Eric S. Wohleb, Ronald S. Duman
Omalizumab is an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (mAb) approved for the treatment of severe asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria. Use of omalizumab is associated with reported side effects ranging from local skin inflammation at the injection site to systemic anaphylaxis. To date, the mechanisms through which omalizumab induces adverse reactions are still unknown. Here, we demonstrated that immune complexes formed between omalizumab and IgE can induce both skin inflammation and anaphylaxis through engagement of IgG receptors (FcγRs) in FcγR-humanized mice. We further developed an Fc-engineered mutant version of omalizumab, and demonstrated that this mAb is equally potent as omalizumab at blocking IgE-mediated allergic reactions, but does not induce FcγR-dependent adverse reactions. Overall, our data indicate that omalizumab can induce skin inflammation and anaphylaxis by engaging FcγRs, and demonstrate that Fc-engineered versions of the mAb could be used to reduce such adverse reactions.
Bianca Balbino, Pauline Herviou, Ophélie Godon, Julien Stackowicz, Odile Richard-Le Goff, Bruno Iannascoli, Delphine Sterlin, Sébastien Brûlé, Gael A. Millot, Faith M. Harris, Vera A. Voronina, Kari C. Nadeau, Lynn E. Macdonald, Andrew J. Murphy, Pierre Bruhns, Laurent L. Reber
BACKGROUND Ceramides are sphingolipids that play causative roles in diabetes and heart disease, with their serum levels measured clinically as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD).METHODS We performed targeted lipidomics on serum samples from individuals with familial coronary artery disease (CAD) (n = 462) and population-based controls (n = 212) to explore the relationship between serum sphingolipids and CAD, using unbiased machine learning to identify sphingolipid species positively associated with CAD.RESULTS Nearly every sphingolipid measured (n = 30 of 32) was significantly elevated in subjects with CAD compared with measurements in population controls. We generated a novel sphingolipid-inclusive CAD risk score, termed SIC, that demarcates patients with CAD independently and more effectively than conventional clinical CVD biomarkers including serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. This new metric comprises several minor lipids that likely serve as measures of flux through the ceramide biosynthesis pathway rather than the abundant deleterious ceramide species that are included in other ceramide-based scores.CONCLUSION This study validates serum ceramides as candidate biomarkers of CVD and suggests that comprehensive sphingolipid panels should be considered as measures of CVD.FUNDING The NIH (DK112826, DK108833, DK115824, DK116888, and DK116450); the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF 3-SRA-2019-768-A-B); the American Diabetes Association; the American Heart Association; the Margolis Foundation; the National Cancer Institute, NIH (5R00CA218694-03); and the Huntsman Cancer Institute Cancer Center Support Grant (P30CA040214).
Annelise M. Poss, J. Alan Maschek, James E. Cox, Benedikt J. Hauner, Paul N. Hopkins, Steven C. Hunt, William L. Holland, Scott A. Summers, Mary C. Playdon
Mechanisms mediating the cardioprotective actions of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were unknown. Here, we show in both ex vivo and in vivo models of ischemic injury that treatment with GLP-1(28–36), a neutral endopeptidase–generated (NEP-generated) metabolite of GLP-1, was as cardioprotective as GLP-1 and was abolished by scrambling its amino acid sequence. GLP-1(28–36) enters human coronary artery endothelial cells (caECs) through macropinocytosis and acts directly on mouse and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) and caECs, resulting in soluble adenylyl cyclase Adcy10–dependent (sAC-dependent) increases in cAMP, activation of protein kinase A, and cytoprotection from oxidative injury. GLP-1(28–36) modulates sAC by increasing intracellular ATP levels, with accompanying cAMP accumulation lost in sAC–/– cells. We identify mitochondrial trifunctional protein-α (MTPα) as a binding partner of GLP-1(28–36) and demonstrate that the ability of GLP-1(28–36) to shift substrate utilization from oxygen-consuming fatty acid metabolism toward oxygen-sparing glycolysis and glucose oxidation and to increase cAMP levels is dependent on MTPα. NEP inhibition with sacubitril blunted the ability of GLP-1 to increase cAMP levels in coronary vascular cells in vitro. GLP-1(28–36) is a small peptide that targets novel molecular (MTPα and sAC) and cellular (caSMC and caEC) mechanisms in myocardial ischemic injury.
M. Ahsan Siraj, Dhanwantee Mundil, Sanja Beca, Abdul Momen, Eric A. Shikatani, Talat Afroze, Xuetao Sun, Ying Liu, Siavash Ghaffari, Warren Lee, Michael B. Wheeler, Gordon Keller, Peter Backx, Mansoor Husain
PTH is a critical regulator of skeletal development that promotes both bone formation and bone resorption. Using microbiota depletion by wide-spectrum antibiotics and germ-free (GF) female mice we showed that the microbiota was required for PTH to stimulate bone formation and increase bone mass. Microbiota depletion lowered butyrate levels, a metabolite responsible for gut-bone communication, while reestablishment of physiologic levels of butyrate restored PTH-induced anabolism. The permissive activity of butyrate was mediated by GPR43 signaling in dendritic cells (DCs) and by GPR43-independent signaling in T cells. Butyrate was required for PTH to increase the number of bone marrow (BM) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs stimulated production of the osteogenic Wnt ligand Wnt10b by BM CD8+ T cells, which activated Wnt dependent bone formation. Together, these data highlight the role that butyrate produced by gut luminal microbiota plays in triggering regulatory pathways which are critical for the anabolic action of PTH in bone.
Jau-Yi Li, Mingcan Yu, Subhashis Pal, Abdul Malik Tyagi, Hamid Dar, Jonathan Adams, M. Neale Weitzmann, Rheinallt M. Jones, Roberto Pacifici
Foxp3+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells are key to immune homeostasis, but the contributions of various large, multiprotein complexes that regulate gene expression remain unexplored. We analyzed the role in Tregs of the evolutionarily conserved CoREST complex consisting of a scaffolding protein, Rcor1 or Rcor2, plus Hdac1 or Hdac2 and Lsd1 enzymes. Rcor1, Rcor2 and Lsd1 were physically associated with Foxp3, and mice with conditional deletion of Rcor1 in Foxp3+ Tregs had decreased proportions of Tregs in peripheral lymphoid tissues, and increased Treg expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ compared to WT cells. Mice with conditional deletion of the gene encoding Rcor1 in their Tregs had reduced suppression of homeostatic proliferation, inability to maintain long-term allograft survival despite costimulation blockade, and enhanced antitumor immunity in syngeneic models. Comparable findings were seen in WT mice treated with CoREST complex bivalent inhibitors, which also altered the phenotype of human Tregs and impaired their suppressive function. Our data point to the potential for therapeutic modulation of Treg functions by pharmacologic targeting of enzymatic components of the CoREST complex, and contribute to an understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which Foxp3 represses large gene sets and maintains the unique properties of this key immune cell.
Yan Xiong, Liqing Wang, Eros Di Giorgio, Tatiana Akimova, Ulf H. Beier, Rongxiang Han, Matteo Trevisanut, Jay H. Kalin, Philip A. Cole, Wayne W. Hancock
Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is present in a wide variety of cells and may thus have important non-B cell functions. Here we explored the function of this kinase in macrophages with studies of its regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. We found that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from BTK-deficient mice or monocytes from X-linked agammaglobulinemia patients exhibit increased NLRP3 inflammasome activity; this was also the case with BMDMs exposed to low doses of BTK inhibitor such as ibrutinib and monocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients being treated with ibrutinib. In mechanistic studies, we found that BTK binds to NLRP3 during the priming phase of inflammasome activation and in doing so inhibits LPS/nigericin-induced assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome during the activation phase of inflammasome activation. This inhibitory effect was caused by BTK inhibition of PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of Ser5 in the pyrin domain of NLRP3. Finally, we showed that BTK-deficient mice are subject to severe experimental colitis and such colitis is normalized by administration of anti-IL-β or an inhibitor of IL-1β signaling, anakinra. Together, these studies strongly suggest that BTK functions as a physiologic inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome activation; they thereby explain the fact that XLA patients are prone to develop Crohn’s disease.
Liming Mao, Atsushi Kitani, Eitaro Hiejima, Kim Montgomery-Recht, Wenchang Zhou, Ivan Fuss, Adrian Wiestner, Warren Strober