HIV infection results in gastrointestinal (GI) tract damage, microbial translocation, and immune activation, which are not completely ameliorated with suppression of viremia by antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Furthermore, increased morbidity and mortality of ARV-treated HIV-infected individuals is associated with these dysfunctions. Thus, to enhance GI tract physiology, we treated SIV-infected pigtail macaques with ARVs, probiotics, and prebiotics or with ARVs alone. This synbiotic treatment resulted in increased frequency and functionality of GI tract APCs, enhanced reconstitution and functionality of CD4+ T cells, and reduced fibrosis of lymphoid follicles in the colon. Thus, ARV synbiotic supplementation in HIV-infected individuals may improve GI tract immunity and thereby mitigate inflammatory sequelae, ultimately improving prognosis.
Nichole R. Klatt, Lauren A. Canary, Xiaoyong Sun, Carol L. Vinton, Nicholas T. Funderburg, David R. Morcock, Mariam Quiñones, Clayton B. Deming, Molly Perkins, Daria J. Hazuda, Michael D. Miller, Michael M. Lederman, Julie A. Segre, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Elias K. Haddad, Jacob D. Estes, Jason M. Brenchley
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are thought to maintain homeostasis and contribute to long-term repair in adult white matter; however, their roles in the acute phase after brain injury remain unclear. Mice that were subjected to prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion stress developed white matter demyelination over time. Prior to demyelination, we detected increased MMP9 expression, blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, and neutrophil infiltration in damaged white matter. Notably, at this early stage, OPCs made up the majority of MMP9-expressing cells. The standard MMP inhibitor GM6001 reduced the early BBB leakage and neutrophil infiltration, indicating that OPC-derived MMP9 induced early BBB disruption after white matter injury. Cell-culture experiments confirmed that OPCs secreted MMP9 under pathological conditions, and conditioned medium prepared from the stressed OPCs weakened endothelial barrier tightness in vitro. Our study reveals that OPCs can rapidly respond to white matter injury and produce MMP9 that disrupts the BBB, indicating that OPCs may mediate injury in white matter under disease conditions.
Ji Hae Seo, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Loc-Duyen D. Pham, Takakuni Maki, Cenk Ayata, Kyu-Won Kim, Eng H. Lo, Ken Arai
Long-lived memory T cells are able to persist in the host in the absence of antigen; however, the mechanism by which they are maintained is not well understood. Recently, a subset of human T cells, stem cell memory T cells (TSCM cells), was shown to be self-renewing and multipotent, thereby providing a potential reservoir for T cell memory throughout life. However, their in vivo dynamics and homeostasis still remain to be defined due to the lack of suitable animal models. We identified T cells with a TSCM phenotype and stem cell–like properties in nonhuman primates. These cells were the least-differentiated memory subset, were functionally distinct from conventional memory cells, and served as precursors of central memory. Antigen-specific TSCM cells preferentially localized to LNs and were virtually absent from mucosal surfaces. They were generated in the acute phase of viral infection, preferentially survived in comparison with all other memory cells following elimination of antigen, and stably persisted for the long term. Thus, one mechanism for maintenance of long-term T cell memory derives from the unique homeostatic properties of TSCM cells. Vaccination strategies designed to elicit durable cellular immunity should target the generation of TSCM cells.
Enrico Lugli, Maria H. Dominguez, Luca Gattinoni, Pratip K. Chattopadhyay, Diane L. Bolton, Kaimei Song, Nichole R. Klatt, Jason M. Brenchley, Monica Vaccari, Emma Gostick, David A. Price, Thomas A. Waldmann, Nicholas P. Restifo, Genoveffa Franchini, Mario Roederer
Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are predisposed to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), an aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. Conditional inactivation of the Nf1 tumor suppressor in hematopoietic cells of mice causes a progressive MPN that accurately models JMML and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). We characterized the effects of Nf1 loss on immature hematopoietic populations and investigated treatment with the MEK inhibitor PD0325901 (hereafter called 901). Somatic Nf1 inactivation resulted in a marked expansion of immature and lineage-committed myelo-erythroid progenitors and ineffective erythropoiesis. Treatment with 901 induced a durable drop in leukocyte counts, enhanced erythropoietic function, and markedly reduced spleen sizes in mice with MPN. MEK inhibition also restored a normal pattern of erythroid differentiation and greatly reduced extramedullary hematopoiesis. Remarkably, genetic analysis revealed the persistence of Nf1-deficient hematopoietic cells, indicating that MEK inhibition modulates the proliferation and differentiation of Nf1 mutant cells in vivo rather than eliminating them. These data provide a rationale for performing clinical trials of MEK inhibitors in patients with JMML and CMML.
Tiffany Chang, Kimberly Krisman, Emily Harding Theobald, Jin Xu, Jon Akutagawa, Jennifer O. Lauchle, Scott Kogan, Benjamin S. Braun, Kevin Shannon
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) predisposes individuals to the development of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), a fatal myeloproliferative disease (MPD). In genetically engineered murine models, nullizygosity of Nf1, a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a Ras-GTPase–activating protein, results in hyperactivity of Raf/Mek/Erk in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Activated Erk1/2 phosphorylate kinases and transcription factors with myriad mitogenic roles in diverse cell types. However, genetic studies examining Erk1/2’s differential and/or combined control of normal and Nf1-deficient myelopoiesis are lacking. Moreover, prior studies relying on chemical Mek/Erk inhibitors have reached conflicting conclusions in normal and Nf1-deficient mice. Here, we show that while single Erk1 or Erk2 disruption did not grossly compromise myelopoiesis, dual Erk1/2 disruption rapidly ablated granulocyte and monocyte production in vivo, diminished progenitor cell number, and prevented HSPC proliferation in vitro. Genetic disruption of Erk1/2 in the context of Nf1 nullizygosity (Mx1Cre+Nf1flox/floxErk1–/–Erk2flox/flox) fully protects against the development of MPD. Collectively, we identified a fundamental requirement for Erk1/2 signaling in normal and Nf1-deficient hematopoiesis, elucidating a critical hematopoietic function for Erk1/2 while genetically validating highly selective Mek/Erk inhibitors in a leukemia that is otherwise resistant to traditional therapy.
Karl Staser, Su-Jung Park, Steven D. Rhodes, Yi Zeng, Yong Zheng He, Matthew A. Shew, Jeffrey R. Gehlhausen, Donna Cerabona, Keshav Menon, Shi Chen, Zejin Sun, Jin Yuan, David A. Ingram, Grzegorz Nalepa, Feng-Chun Yang, D. Wade Clapp
The FGF23 coreceptor αKlotho (αKL) is expressed as a membrane-bound protein (mKL) that forms heteromeric complexes with FGF receptors (FGFRs) to initiate intracellular signaling. It also circulates as an endoproteolytic cleavage product of mKL (cKL). Previously, a patient with increased plasma cKL as the result of a translocation [t(9;13)] in the αKLOTHO (KL) gene presented with rickets and a complex endocrine profile, including paradoxically elevated plasma FGF23, despite hypophosphatemia. The goal of this study was to test whether cKL regulates phosphate handling through control of FGF23 expression. To increase cKL levels, mice were treated with an adeno-associated virus producing cKL. The treated groups exhibited dose-dependent hypophosphatemia and hypocalcemia, with markedly elevated FGF23 (38 to 456 fold). The animals also manifested fractures, reduced bone mineral content, expanded growth plates, and severe osteomalacia, with highly increased bone Fgf23 mRNA (>150 fold). cKL activity in vitro was specific for interactions with FGF23 and was FGFR dependent. These results demonstrate that cKL potently stimulates FGF23 production in vivo, which phenocopies the KL translocation patient and metabolic bone syndromes associated with elevated FGF23. These findings have important implications for the regulation of αKL and FGF23 in disorders of phosphate handling and biomineralization.
Rosamund C. Smith, Linda M. O’Bryan, Emily G. Farrow, Lelia J. Summers, Erica L. Clinkenbeard, Jessica L. Roberts, Taryn A. Cass, Joy Saha, Carol Broderick, Y. Linda Ma, Qing Qiang Zeng, Alexei Kharitonenkov, Jonathan M. Wilson, Qianxu Guo, Haijun Sun, Matthew R. Allen, David B. Burr, Matthew D. Breyer, Kenneth E. White
Src homology 2 B adapter protein 1 (SH2B1) modulates signaling by a variety of ligands that bind to receptor tyrosine kinases or JAK-associated cytokine receptors, including leptin, insulin, growth hormone (GH), and nerve growth factor (NGF). Targeted deletion of Sh2b1 in mice results in increased food intake, obesity, and insulin resistance, with an intermediate phenotype seen in heterozygous null mice on a high-fat diet. We identified SH2B1 loss-of-function mutations in a large cohort of patients with severe early-onset obesity. Mutation carriers exhibited hyperphagia, childhood-onset obesity, disproportionate insulin resistance, and reduced final height as adults. Unexpectedly, mutation carriers exhibited a spectrum of behavioral abnormalities that were not reported in controls, including social isolation and aggression. We conclude that SH2B1 plays a critical role in the control of human food intake and body weight and is implicated in maladaptive human behavior.
Michael E. Doche, Elena G. Bochukova, Hsiao-Wen Su, Laura R. Pearce, Julia M. Keogh, Elana Henning, Joel M. Cline, Anne Dale, Tim Cheetham, Inês Barroso, Lawrence S. Argetsinger, Stephen O’Rahilly, Liangyou Rui, Christin Carter-Su, I. Sadaf Farooqi
The endothelium regulates vascular homeostasis, and endothelial dysfunction is a proximate event in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. Stimulation of the endothelium with proinflammatory cytokines or exposure to hemodynamic-induced disturbed flow leads to a proadhesive and prothrombotic phenotype that promotes atherothrombosis. In contrast, exposure to arterial laminar flow induces a gene program that confers a largely antiadhesive, antithrombotic effect. The molecular basis for this differential effect on endothelial function remains poorly understood. While recent insights implicate Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) as important regulators of vascular homeostasis, the in vivo role of these factors in endothelial biology remains unproven. Here, we show that endothelial KLF4 is an essential determinant of atherogenesis and thrombosis. Using in vivo EC-specific KLF4 overexpression and knockdown murine models, we found that KLF4 induced an antiadhesive, antithrombotic state. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that KLF4 differentially regulated pertinent endothelial targets via competition for the coactivator p300. These observations provide cogent evidence implicating endothelial KLFs as essential in vivo regulators of vascular function in the adult animal.
Guangjin Zhou, Anne Hamik, Lalitha Nayak, Hongmei Tian, Hong Shi, Yuan Lu, Nikunj Sharma, Xudong Liao, Andrew Hale, Lauren Boerboom, Ryan E. Feaver, Huiyun Gao, Amar Desai, Alvin Schmaier, Stanton L. Gerson, Yunmei Wang, G. Brandon Atkins, Brett R. Blackman, Daniel I. Simon, Mukesh K. Jain
Congenital diarrheal disorders (CDDs) are a collection of rare, heterogeneous enteropathies with early onset and often severe outcomes. Here, we report a family of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, with 2 out of 3 children affected by CDD. Both affected children presented 3 days after birth with severe, intractable diarrhea. One child died from complications at age 17 months. The second child showed marked improvement, with resolution of most symptoms at 10 to 12 months of age. Using exome sequencing, we identified a rare splice site mutation in the DGAT1 gene and found that both affected children were homozygous carriers. Molecular analysis of the mutant allele indicated a total loss of function, with no detectable DGAT1 protein or activity produced. The precise cause of diarrhea is unknown, but we speculate that it relates to abnormal fat absorption and buildup of DGAT substrates in the intestinal mucosa. Our results identify DGAT1 loss-of-function mutations as a rare cause of CDDs. These findings prompt concern for DGAT1 inhibition in humans, which is being assessed for treating metabolic and other diseases.
Joel T. Haas, Harland S. Winter, Elaine Lim, Andrew Kirby, Brendan Blumenstiel, Matthew DeFelice, Stacey Gabriel, David Branski, Carrie A. Grueter, Mauro S. Toporovski, Tobias C. Walther, Mark J. Daly, Robert V. Farese Jr.
Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are major activators of human fat cell lipolysis and have recently been shown to control brown fat thermogenesis. Here, we investigated the physiological role of NP on the oxidative metabolism of human skeletal muscle. NP receptor type A (NPRA) gene expression was positively correlated to mRNA levels of PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC1A) and several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes in human skeletal muscle. Further, the expression of NPRA, PGC1A, and OXPHOS genes was coordinately upregulated in response to aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle. In human myotubes, NP induced PGC-1α and mitochondrial OXPHOS gene expression in a cyclic GMP–dependent manner. NP treatment increased OXPHOS protein expression, fat oxidation, and maximal respiration independent of substantial changes in mitochondrial proliferation and mass. Treatment of myotubes with NP recapitulated the effect of exercise training on muscle fat oxidative capacity in vivo. Collectively, these data show that activation of NP signaling in human skeletal muscle enhances mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and fat oxidation. We propose that NP could contribute to exercise training–induced improvement in skeletal muscle fat oxidative capacity in humans.
Stefan Engeli, Andreas L. Birkenfeld, Pierre-Marie Badin, Virginie Bourlier, Katie Louche, Nathalie Viguerie, Claire Thalamas, Emilie Montastier, Dominique Larrouy, Isabelle Harant, Isabelle de Glisezinski, Stefanie Lieske, Julia Reinke, Bibiana Beckmann, Dominique Langin, Jens Jordan, Cedric Moro
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